The problem of obtaining environmentally friendly crop production has acquired serious significance and is currently observed in all climatic zones of Russia. In this regard, the production of artificial soil mixtures based on available, natural organic materials is becoming relevant, peat has an absolute advantage among them.

In the Pskov region, the first studies on the use of peat in agriculture were conducted in the late 80s. agrochemical stations "Pskov" and "Velikolukskaya". The data obtained by them is very small and contradictory. Therefore, the study of the agroecological effectiveness of the use of peat for the production of nutritious soils for growing plants in closed ground is of great scientific and practical importance.

The Pskov region has significant peat reserves (229 thousand ha with the possibility of renewing resources), which determines the possibility of the active involvement of this type of organic raw material in modern production. In particular, the development of the Galsky Moss peat deposit of the Velikoluksky district allowed Veltorf LLC to start producing peat mixtures, the main component of which is high-quality peat (80-90%) that does not contain pathogenic microflora, pests, weeds and does not require sterilization. There are no industrial pollution, radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and herbicides in the extracted peat; There are no farmlands and industrial facilities in the area of ​​peat extraction; agricultural crops have never been grown on drained peatlands. This is an absolute advantage of the proposed peat for use in agricultural production, allowing peat to be used as fertilizer without limiting the application rate.

In November 2011, the staff of the Department of Chemistry, Agrochemistry and Agroecology, together with the product quality control department, launched a comprehensive study. The purpose of the scientific work was experimental work to determine the most important agrochemical indicators of peat samples of Veltorf LLC intended for the professional market, and to prove the agronomic effectiveness of the use of biologically active additives in the growing experiment, as well as a comparative analysis of the quality of peat samples of Veltorf LLC and universal soil of another manufacturer.

Laboratory and vegetation experiments performed in the scientific laboratory of the Department of Chemistry, Agrochemistry and Agroecology and in the laboratory of microclonal propagation of plants of the All-Union Agricultural Agricultural Academy served as the methodological basis for scientific research.

Laboratory experiments included chemical analyzes to determine agrochemical indicators characterizing the most important properties of soil, made in accordance with GOST.

The growing experiment was carried out in the phytotron of the VGSHA scientific laboratory in rectangular (10 cm x18 cm) polyethylene vessels 9 cm high, containing 1 kg of peat, and cassettes (5 cm x 5 cm). The volume of peat soil samples required for filling the vessels was provided by Veltorf OJSC. The experiment scheme included 4 options:
1) G-1 - control peat (peat, limestone flour, 1.2 kg of PGMix fertilizer);
2) G-2 - control peat soil with the 1st biologically active additive (BAA-1);
3) G-3 - control peat soil with the 2nd biologically active additive (BAA-2);
4) ZhZ - universal soil of another manufacturer.

After wetting peat soils, the same number of seeds was sown in each vessel - 15 pcs. - lettuce of the leaf grade "Emerald Lace", previously tested for germination (80%); in each cassette - 1 salad seed. During the growing season, the humidity in the vessels was maintained at the level of 60% of the total moisture capacity, the temperature was at the level of 18 ° C, and the illumination in the experiment was provided with ordinary fluorescent lamps. The repetition in the experiment was fivefold.

Analysis of peat soil samples of Veltorf LLC and universal soil ZH for 11 indicators was carried out at the beginning of the experiment, and for NPK twice more with an interval of a week (only for G-1, G-2, G-3). This was due to the need to confirm the reliability of the obtained agrochemical parameters with verification using standard samples.

As a result of the study, it was found that all three samples of peat soils of Veltorf LLC had almost the same agrochemical parameters (Table 1). At the same time, the ZhZ soil had high humidity, an almost neutral pH value (equality between rNCl and pHH2O was observed), a very low content of ammonium nitrogen, and an increased content of magnesium.

However, in general, with all these differences, all soils had comparable indicators for mobile NPK forms, which gave the same starting position for growing plants.
A week later, there was a clear increase in ammonia nitrogen in the variant with dietary supplement-1. A week later - the same trend. This clearly indicates the active production of this form of nitrogen by the bacterium. At the same time, no changes were found in the content of mobile compounds of phosphorus and potassium.

Table 1. Agrochemical properties of peat vegetation experience
Indicators G-1 G-2 G-3 ZhZ
Humidity,% 34.9 34.4 34.4 53.9
Bulk density at actual moisture, g / l 228 229 229 362
Acidity, pHH2O
rnCl 5.9
5.46 5.95
5.63 6.0
5.43 6.45
Conductivity, µS / cm 422 477 451 467
plant nutrients, mg / l:
Nitrogen (N-NH4)
Nitrogen (N-NO3)
Phosphorus in terms of P2O5
Potassium in terms of K2O
Calcium in terms of CaO
Magnesium in terms of MgO





In the process of studying the dynamics of growth and development of lettuce, it was found that after three weeks the situation of the absence of differences at the initial stage has noticeably changed.

So, in the variant with BAA-1, the plants had a more intense green color, were distinguished by a greater curliness of the leaves and had the most “healthy appearance”. At the same time, the option with dietary supplement-2 was no different. In the control sample, the plants felt generally good. Concern in the experiment was caused by the soil of the ZhZ: the plants obviously lacked nitrogen (this was also confirmed by the agrochemical analysis), which was reflected in the color of the plants and their development.

At the end of the experiment, it was visually established that the largest increase in vegetative mass was observed in the control variant and in the dietary supplement-1 variant, which was also confirmed by the analysis of plant material samples (Table 2).

Table 2. The results of observations of plants in the growing experiment
Indicators G-1 G-2 G-3 ZhZ
The density of seedlings,% 82 87 85 89
The mass of plants in the vessel, g 21.39 30.8 32.0 27.64
Mass of one plant, g 1.84 3.17 3.31 1.97
Leaf area of ​​one plant, cm2 94.6 98.7 99.2 93.5

Assessment of the development of the root system of plants showed that this system became the most branched in the presence of dietary supplement-1. This, apparently, explains the most salable appearance of the obtained plant products in this embodiment, expressed in a more intense green color, uniform development of plants, and increased curliness of the leaves.

Thus, in the growing experiment it was found that both a control soil sample and soil supplemented with BAA-1 against the background of an increased dose (1.2 kg) of PGMix complex mineral fertilizer are effective in growing lettuce. At the same time, no reliable evidence of the effectiveness of dietary supplements-2 was found. In addition, an important conclusion was made about the effectiveness of the soil produced by Veltorf LLC in comparison with the ZhZ soil.

V.A. Vorobiev, I.A. Nadtochy
FSBEI Velikiye Luki State Agricultural Academy, Velikiye Luki, Russia


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